Introduction to Principal Component Analysis
Principal component analysis with CPPTRAJ
The goal here is to perform principal component analysis (PCA) using
two different trajectories of a 36-mer double stranded DNA,
d(GCACGAACGAACGAACGC). One of the trajectories was run on GPUs and
the other on CPUs with the goal of determining if both technologies
sampled the same conformational space of the DNA. The trajectories
here are exemplary; the full data is available at:
Papers describing this work are:
- R Galindo-Murillo, DR Roe, and TE Cheatham, III. “Convergence and
reproducibility in molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA duplex
d(GCACGAACGAACGAACGC).” Biochimica Biophys. Acta 1850,
1041-1058 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.09.007.
- R Galindo-Murillo, DR Roe, and TE Cheatham, III. “On the absence
intrahelical DNA dynamics on the μs to ms timescale.”
Nature Commun. 5:5152 (2014) doi: 10.1038/ncomms6152.
Brief Introduction to PCA
PCA is a technique that can be used to transform a series of potentially
coordinated observations into a set of orthogonal vectors called principal
components (PCs). One way to think of PCs is that they are a means of
explaining variance in the data. If the input data are Cartesian coordinates,
then a PC is a means of showing variance in coordinate space. PCA is done in
such a way that the first PC shows the largest variance in the data, the
second PC shows the second largest and so on. The input to PCA in this example
will be the coordinate covariance matrix calculated from the time series of 3D
positional coordinates, so the PCs will represent certain modes of motion
undergone by the system, with the first PC representing the dominant motion.
One important thing to keep in mind is that while PCA is useful for gaining
insight into the dynamics of a system, the actual motion of the system
throughout the course of a simulation is almost always a combination of the
individual PCs. So while motion along a single PC might show a transition, it
is usually not actually how the system undergoes that transition.
Step 1: Calculation of the coordinate covariance matrix
As mentioned above, the input to PCA will be a coordinate covariance matrix.
The entries to this matrix are the covariance between the X, Y, and Z
components of each atom, so the final matrix will have a size of
[3 * # selected atoms] X [3 * # selected atoms]. This means that in order to
properly populate this matrix we will need at least as many input frames
to calculate the coordinate covariance matrix as we have rows/columns
(i.e. 3 * # selected atoms).
The script we are going to use is:
As the trajectories may not have the same number of atoms, we need to
load up the topology file (prmtop) information for each. We assign a tag or name for each
with the name handler [name] functionality.
parm cpu/cpu.prmtop [cpu] parm gpu/gpu.prmtop [gpu]
The topology file “cpu/cpu.prmtop” can now be referred to by ‘[cpu]’
instead of the full file name.
With the topologies loaded, we now want to load up the trajectories
each with their respective topologies. In this example, each
trajectory is 10001 frames long so our combined data set will be 20002
frames, the first 10001 frames correspond to the cpu frames and the
from 10002 to 20002, correspond to the GPU frames.
trajin cpu/cpu.nc parm [cpu] trajin gpu/gpu.nc parm [gpu]
Now if we were just to calculate the coordinate covariance matrix from the
raw trajectory data, we will not only capture internal motion, but also
the global rotation and translation of the system. Since in this instance
we are interested in only internal dynamics, we need to remove the rotational/translational
motion, which we will accomplish by performing a coordinate RMS best-fit to a
reference structure, which in our case will be the averaged coordinates. To generate
the average coordinates we first put the frames in a common reference by RMS fitting
to the first frame using all atoms of the DNA (residues 1-36) except the hydrogens.
rms first :1-36&!@H=
We then create an average structure over the entire set of
frames loaded and save the coordinates as ‘cpu-gpu-average’, which can be subsequently
used as a reference structure. Note that if we wanted to
we could write the averaged coordinates out to a file in any format CPPTRAJ supports as well.
average crdset cpu-gpu-average
CPPTRAJ has the notion of “data sets” which can be of multiple
formats. Here we create a coordinate dataset that will save all of the input frames.
This allows us to act on the entire set later without have
to re-read in the trajectories from disk. We refer to the loaded frame
coordinate dataset as: cpu-gpu-trajectories.
The commands above will generate the average structure which we want
to use as a reference. To run the above now, without exiting the
program, we input the run command.
Now we have generated the averaged coordinates, ‘cpu-gpu-average’, as well as
saved the frames from the input trajectories. Now we can RMS-fit the saved trajectory
frames to the averaged coordinates to remove global rotational/translational motion. This is
done using the crdaction command.
crdaction cpu-gpu-trajectories rms ref cpu-gpu-average :1-36&!@H=
Now we use the matrix command to generate
the coordinate covariance matrix, which we will name ‘cpu-gpu-covar’:
crdaction cpu-gpu-trajectories matrix covar \ name cpu-gpu-covar :1-36&!@H=
Note that the backslash ‘\‘ character can be used to
continue a line; this is useful for making complicated input more readable.
Step 2: Calculate principal components and coordinate projections
Now that we have the matrix, we can obtain PCs by diagonalizing it; this will give us
the eigenvectors (i.e. the PCs) and the eigenvalues (i.e. the “weight” of each PC). To start,
we will obtain the first three eigenvectors:
runanalysis diagmatrix cpu-gpu-covar out cpu-gpu-evecs.dat \ vecs 3 name myEvecs \ nmwiz nmwizvecs 3 nmwizfile dna.nmd nmwizmask :1-36&!@H=
The runanalysis command tells cpptraj to run ‘diagmatrix’
immediately instead of adding it to the Analysis queue. The
nmwiz and related keywords generate output which can
be used to visualize principal component data with the ‘nmwiz’ plugin for VMD.
Once this command has completed
the file ‘cpu-gpu-evecs.dat’ and the data set
‘myEvecs’ will contain the eigenvectors (PCs) and eigenvalues (this data is referred to
collectively as “eigenmode data”). It is often useful
to write these out to a file as they can be read back in later for further analysis.
We can now project the trajectory coordinates along PCs to see how much the coordinates
of each frame “match up” along each principal component. We can do this for the frames from
the original individual trajectories, which will essentially allow us to compare how well
the motions from each individual trajectory match. Note that it is critical that
the frames used for projection are the same ones used to generate the coordinate
covariance matrix. In this case the saved frames in memory can be used. It is also
necessary that the same atom mask that was used to generate the matrix is used
crdaction cpu-gpu-trajectories projection CPU modes myEvecs \ beg 1 end 3 :1-36&!@H= crdframes 1,10001 crdaction cpu-gpu-trajectories projection GPU modes myEvecs \ beg 1 end 3 :1-36&!@H= crdframes 10002,last
In this case the projections from the cpu trajectories are named ‘CPU’ and
the projections from the gpu trajectories are named ‘GPU’. Once this data is
generated, we can make normalized histograms of the three calculated projections
from each trajectory with hist analysis commands,
followed by the run command to actually do the work!
hist CPU:1 bins 100 out cpu-gpu-hist.agr norm name CPU-1 hist CPU:2 bins 100 out cpu-gpu-hist.agr norm name CPU-2 hist CPU:3 bins 100 out cpu-gpu-hist.agr norm name CPU-3 hist GPU:1 bins 100 out cpu-gpu-hist.agr norm name GPU-1 hist GPU:2 bins 100 out cpu-gpu-hist.agr norm name GPU-2 hist GPU:3 bins 100 out cpu-gpu-hist.agr norm name GPU-3 run
The data set indices (e.g. ‘:1’) refer to the principal components, so that ‘CPU:1’
is the first principal component from CPU etc.
Step 3: Visualizing principal components
Now that this phase of the analysis has been completed, we can
issue the clear all
command to get rid of all stored data so we can do further analysis
with a “clean slate”.
Our next step is to
visualize the fluctuations of the eigenmodes. To do this, we read in
the generated file with the eigenvectores using the
readdata cpu-gpu-evecs.dat name Evecs
Load up a topology and modify it so that it will match how the coordinate covariance
matrix (and the subsequent eigenvectors) were calculated:
parm cpu/cpu.prmtop parmstrip !(:1-36&!@H=) parmwrite out cpu-gpu-modes.prmtop
Create a NetCDF pseudo-trajectory file of motion along the first PC. The min
and max values can be chosen by looking at the histogram of the PC projection.
runanalysis modes name Evecs trajout cpu-gpu-mode1.nc \ pcmin -100 pcmax 100 tmode 1 trajoutmask :1-36&!@H= trajoutfmt netcdf
Now you can open the files in Chimera / VMD and watch the movie of the
first mode of motion! cpu-gpu-modes.prmtop
Copyright Thomas E. Cheatham III, Christina Bergonzo,
Daniel Roe & Rodrigo Galindo-Murillo, 2015